An Integrated study is in which children broadly explores knowledge in various subjects related to certain aspects of their environment.By Humphreys post and Ellis 1981
Integrated Refers to education that is organized in such a way that it cuts across the subject matter lines,bringing together various aspects of the curriculum into meaningful association to focus upon broad areas of study. It views learning and teaching in a holistic way and reflects the real world. Which is interactive.
Now, let’s understand in simple words for the little kids. What is integrated learning?
This learning promotes and refers to holistically learning. As it connects many topics of one concept t with other subjects. And further, it connects .one subjects topic to many subjects. Students can use their previous knowledge and experiences. Then, apply it to real-life situations.
In past or in earlier times you can find the subject boundaries. But in integrated learning, is much more flexible for children. It helps the children to expand his /her knowledge and experience.
Additionally, it focuses on beyond the text learning. So that children can connect it with real-life experiences and learn.
Principle of integrated learning.
- Integrated learning helps the children to expand the knowledge . Then build and extend their previous knowledge and experiences.
- Open ended learning style.
- Helps to develop problem solving ability.
Characteristics of integrated learning.
- It refers to a holistic way of learning.
- Encouraging peer group work.
- Develop problem solving ability.
- Help to develop the social skills of the children.
- It is directly connected with the real world.
- An emphasis on projects that goes beyond text.
- Refers to combinations of the subjects.
- To helps the child to think creatively as well critically.
- Collaboration is the main feature of integrated learning
- Ensures the active participation of the learners.
So above we discussed key principles of integrated learning. Then characteristics of integrated learning. These can surely help you to integrate your learning with other sub-themes or subjects.
Now let’s discuss the approach or types of integrated learning.
This diagram shows an in-depth explanation of the learning integration.
1. Within the aubject areas.
Learning integration is divided into three approaches or types. Let’s learn these approaches in detail. Then, by giving examples of each approach.
Within-subject areas integration approach. Under this head comes an intra-disciplinary approach: Let’s learn about it.
1.Intra- disciplinary approach :
It is a process of learning where the particular subject has different concepts. Then within that subject, it connects different concepts with several topics.
In this type of approach, we combine knowledge and skills of the same subjects during the classroom. Which helps to make teaching a learning process effective.
This process of combining various concepts. Different topics in the same subjects make the learning process effective.
Example of Intra disciplinary approach of Integrated learning :
The subject is English. Where you can learn different competencies within that subject area only. During the language learning process, you can combine reading, writing. creative writing, spelling through storytelling activity or poem recitation activity.
Storytelling -Oral communication is one of the concepts of the language subject. But to make it more interesting. You instruct the students to apply their previous knowledge and experiences. And instruct them to write a story using that knowledge. Further, you can say to read the story and underline the new words. Then ask related questions. And tell them to write the answer from the story.
In a way to combine one concept with inter topics of the same subjects. And try to make the learning holistic for children.
|Another topic : |
Writing or Spelling
Oral communication through Storytelling.
Now let’s take the example from math :
|Subject Mathematics||Topic Numbers||Another topic :|
Ascending order and descending order.
|Concept : |
Addition for grade :1
Here we take the example of the teaching concept – Addition to the grade 1 student. In an intra- disciplinary approach, teachers can ask them to count numbers from 1 to 10. Check their number knowledge. Which is important for addition.
Then Ask about ascending and descending order. Give some numbers to arrange it.
Further to teach addition, combine all topics. Teachers use that previous knowledge of numbers. Then ascending and descending order and more concepts. Which makes learning holistic for the children.
Intra -disciplinary approach is a very old way of the teaching-learning process. Yet using an integrating approach makes the learning easy for the kids.
2. Integration between the subject areas. :
Integration between subject areas is divided into two approaches.
- Multidisciplinary approach
- Interdisciplinary approach
Let’s understand both approaches in detail with examples.
In this type of approach, the outcome of the subject area remains distinct. But because some meaningful linkages are connected during the teaching-learning process. It allows students to combine different subjects during teaching one lesson. Now let us understand with an example.
So As you can see above the example of Theme Water. Water is the theme or topic of science. But using integrated learning, we can teach many subjects to the children. And try to make the teaching-learning process holistic. Now Let’s understand What is multidisciplinary integrated learning is.
Theme is Water.
|Co relate with different subjects||Topics|
|Mathematics||Using water as a theme teacher can teach the topic like measuring units such as liters and milliliters. |
Take examples of bottles, glass, jugs, and mugs, Buckets, etc. And can teach the topic easily.
For example, to fill a bottle how much glass of water is required?
Ask 1 liter is how much milliliter?
And then give more examples for conversion of units.
Volume of water
|Art||The teacher can instruct the students to make a poster on: “ Save the water “ “water is our life.”|
On the same topic, the teacher can arrange the Roleplay or street drama.
|Language||Can arrange creative writing on the topic of the importance of water. |
Write five uses of water, debate on why we should conserve the water?
|Science||Discuss the properties of water. Uses of water.|
Sources of water.Concept of float and sink.
Concept of dissolve or do not dissolve in water.
|Geography||Discuss natural sources of water and their origin.|
Map recording- River, sea, and ocean.
You saw on the above-mentioned examples how we can connect and combine various subjects with one topic.
Now let’s take another example of integrated learning:
The same way I gave here is an example of Mode of transport. And clearly, I have mentioned the various other subjects. You can combine the mode of transport with :
- Art and many more subjects.
Finally, you may understand what a multidisciplinary approach is? How you can use it in your day-to-day life to make the teaching-learning process holistic.
You can use many hands-on activities. Which child can learn from his own experiences? That type of experiential learning can help to use integrated learning approaches easily. Here I link the list of activities of experiential learning. Click on the link you can reach that page.
Next, we will discuss the second approach of integrated learning of integration between the subject areas. I.e interdisciplinary approach.
2. Interdisciplinary approach:
Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches are almost the same. As an interdisciplinary approach, connect one subject to many other subjects during the teaching-learning process.
Let’s see examples of this integrated learning approach:
Like a multidisciplinary approach here also, you can take any subject. And combine that subject with:
- life skills and social skills
Try to give kids a holistic way of teaching. Now, here I give you an example of food in the chart below.
As you can see above concept food of Science Or EVS can combine with:
- Roleplay : Roleplay on food cultural diversity can show.
- Singing : Folk song competition can arrange
- Mathematics: Concept of measuring units can teach.
- Language : Creative writing or essay writing on food.
- Science : Sources of food.
- Method of cooking
- Types of utensils
- Raw and cooked food concepts
- Listing of vegetables and Spices
- Art : Drawing and painting
- Street play
- Social skills : Save food .
- help the needed people.
- Help orphans or old people.
As you see above example how we integrate different subjects area with one subject area. The above example is the best example of an interdisciplinary approach to integrated learning.
3. Integration is Beyond the subject areas
Last but not least, the third type of integration is Beyond the subject areas. Beyond the subject areas means students can connect this knowledge with the real world. And learn from real-life experiences. The students connect their day-to-day life experiences with subject areas.
Under this type of integration comes a Transdisciplinary approach:
The key feature of these integrated learning is knowledge and experiences of day-to-day life. Students have vast experiences. So connect that experience and knowledge with the teaching-learning process. And try to acquire a new learning situation for them. That way it helps to establish a holistic way of learning.
Project-based learning is the best example of beyond subject areas integrated learning. Where the students have given the real-life problems as a project. They research it. Explore it and come to a conclusion and acquire new knowledge.
Here is the above process using a project-based method. Students acquire new knowledge which are beyond the textbooks. Students develop life skills and social skills as well. Two routes i.e disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches lead to the transdisciplinary approach.
Example of buying things from any supermarket. Here a child can apply his previous knowledge. And if he bought earlier from anywhere. Or observe anyone buying things.
- Listing items to buy : correlate with language
- Reading shop name or items name : Again language area
- Money : counting and concept of money : Mathematics.
- Social skills/ life skills. : Don’t cheat or hide things from the store . value of money.
- Try to give kids a holistic way of teaching. Now, here I give you an example of food in the chart below. Mathematics
- Food items : Science and EVS.
So you can see how using the transdisciplinary approach in a real-life a child can learn holistically. He has knowledge of buying things which helps him to acquire new knowledge using a disciplinary and interdisciplinary approach.
So now you have clear ideas about what is integrated learning and the types of art integrated learning. Here I try to give you more clarification with examples so that you have clear ideas about integrated learning. And you can easily use these ideas in your day-to-day teaching-learning process. And make the learning process holistic and everlasting.
Now. Last is hare a chart where you can easily understand the integration type:
So above diagram surely helps you understand the three types of integrated learning. Examples also help you all to understand the art integrated learning and its t